Collective responsibility politics definition oxford

Oxford collective politics

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· What is collective responsibility? 6; emphasis original)—a rather broad definition that perfectly matches the two types of targeted definitions of political participation (Political. They saw thesolution to inter-state problems as being the creation of a respectedsystem of international law, backed by international organizations. What are the controversies surrounding forward looking collective responsibility? ly/2kGYczy Making study time quality. While the majority of those now writing on collective responsibilitycontinue to focus on the kind of responsibility explored above, i.

We want to instil a sense of personal responsibility in children. As thingsnow stand, we generally assume that to hold a group—or, for thatmatter, an individual—responsible for harm is simply toestablish that he, she, or it is responsible for the harm, and as suchwe do not generally find the above question especially challenging. It is a constitutional convention that has existed since the 18th century and is considered a cornerstone of cabinet government.

Typically, this type of responsibility does not focus on the degree of participation that each member contributes to the overall effort, or the position or rank of each person within the structure of. Edited and translated by Ioannis Evrigenis and Daniel Pellerin. His History of the Peloponnesian War is in factneither a work of political philosophy nor a sustained theory ofinternational relations.

The Cabinet Manual makes it clear that it applies in all instances, “save where it is explicitly collective responsibility politics definition oxford set aside” (para 4. · Introduction. Dr Samantha Vanderslott Oxford Martin Fellow, Oxford Martin Programme for Collective Responsibility for Infectious Disease. Does responsibility for remedying harm come down to who caused the harm? The series will contain works of outstanding quality with no restriction as to approach or subject matter. 8 Thus, backward-looking responsibility is placed both on individuals and on collective factors concerning culture and lifestyle. A minister is able to express their views and disagree privately, but once a decision has been made by the Cabinet, it is binding on all members of the Government. In October a “special arrangement” was also put in place to allow certain ministers “some flexibility” to depart from the normal arrangements surrounding collective responsibility, in response to the.

politics alevel edexcel aqa ocr studyrocket. ,backward looking collective responsibility, a small but growing numberof philosophers have chosen to focus instead on forward lookingcollective responsibility. The first is the recognition that collective entities suchas states, corporations, and movements may now be the only agentscapable of preventing particular kinds of suffering in the world. I graduated with a DPhil in Politics (Political Theory) from Nuffield College. Cabinet Collective Responsibility has been one of the conventions of the British Constitution. What is Cabinet Collective Responsibility in the British Government system? The cabinet ministers are usually selected from the same political party as the prime minister to make collective decision-making for legislation faster and more effective.

This chapter considers consequences, which often bear on the correct description of an action, and consequentialism, which claims that consequences are all-important. The forwardlooking notion is less controversial than its backward lookingcounterpart is with respect to its metaphysical foundations. ‘At such a time, the attempt to apportion blame and responsibility between the political and executive levels collective responsibility politics definition oxford of government becomes artificial and obsolete.

The differences between these two things—the act ofholding an agent responsible for harm and the agent’. Instead, it is tomake the agents’ responsibility known both to them and to therest of the community or, in other words, to publicize theirresponsibility as part of a social or legal practice of accountabilityin particular contexts with particular purposes in mind. The first of these controversies concerns whether or not collectiveresponsibility makes sense as a form of moral responsibility. Collective Cabinet Responsibility is the convention that Ministers agree on policy, and defend that policy in public thereafter. Cabinet is the central decision making-body of the Core Executive. Smiley (1992) argues that this has not always beenthe case. During the nineteenth and twentieth century, this idea endured to ensure ministerial unanimity in Parliament. Collective responsibility isassociated with a single, unified, moral agent.

But to hold an agent responsible for harm is not simply to establishthat he, she, or it is responsible for the harm. Under the terms of individual ministerial responsibility, a minister who commits a collective responsibility politics definition oxford serious. If a minister dissents openly, he must resign, or will be sacked. According to the Cabinet Manual (), a minister who cannot abide by collective responsibility is expected to resign (para 13). The book argues that an accurate understanding of moral responsibility in collective contexts requires attention to responsibility at the individual and collective levels. All members of the Government are bound by the convention of collective responsibility, except “where it is explicitly set aside” (Cabinet Manual, 3. Hence, when contemporary philosophers turn theirattention to the conditions of moral responsibility in practice, theyfrequently zero in on what they take to be one of fre.

Second, all members of the government speak in concert in the parliament, unless the prime minister relieves them of that duty. Actions are important not simply as causes in the course of events but as communications; and what they signify is therefore as relevant as what they bring about. ) saw politics as involving moralquestions. Cabinet collective responsibility is a tradition in parliamentary governments in which the prime minister is responsible for appointing the cabinet ministers.

Whereas classical realism was a theory aimed at supportingdiplomatic practice and providing. The requirement for representatives to answer to the represented on the disposal of their powers and duties, act upon criticisms or requirements made of them, and accept (some) responsibility for failure, incompetence, or deceit. collective responsibility politics definition oxford The purpose of this article is to bridge collective responsibility politics definition oxford the gulf between ethical and legal approaches to state responsibility. 20) The formal suspension of collective responsibility on a particular issue does not happen often, and is usually referred to as an ‘agreement to differ’. , a corporation, a nation state, or a club, forharm in the world. Political Ethics Political ethics (sometimes called political morality or public ethics) is the practice of making moral judgments about political action, and the study of that practice. ’ ‘Dispersed throughout the city, they share a collective identity, united by an independent spirit and innovative exhibition strategies. Oxford collective responsibility politics definition oxford Political Theory presents the best new work in contemporary political theory.

See full list on plato. What is forward looking responsibility? Like other classical political theorists, Thucydides(c. But itdoes raise questions about how—on the basis of what norms andprinciples—we can ascribe such responsibility in practice. It has two elements:-The place for decisions to be taken. The most common approach taken to distinguishing between appropriateand inappropriate sites of collective responsibility has been to focuson nations, corporations, and other groups that have well-ordereddecision-making procedures in place, since, it is argued, these groupsare, by virtue of their well-ordered decision-making proc. On the 1975 referendum on the UK’s membership of the European Economic Community.

Collective responsibility is a convention, rather than a requirement, of the UK’s constitution. Individual ministerial responsibility is not the same as cabinet collective responsibility, which states members of the cabinet must approve publicly of its collective decisions or resign. Hence, those who search for the conditions of moralresponsibility generally insist that an agent has herselfcaused—freely willed—that for which she is being heldmorally responsible. Notsurprisingly, the primary focus of attention here has been with boththe moral agency of groups in general and the possibility of groupintentions in particular. It argues against consequentialism. Political reality In theory, we might defend the traditional principle of collective responsibility as a cornerstone of accountable, democratic government.

It is intended to be broad in scope, including original contributions to political philosophy, and also work in applied political theory. I argue that IR scholars and political theorists have much to gain from the functional theory. However, the doctrine of collective responsibility politics definition oxford collective responsibility has also been accepted and applied by both the Scottish and the Welsh devolved administrations. My research focuses on theories of citizenship, global and international justice, and collective responsibility. This means that if a minister disagrees with a government policy, he or she must still publicly support it. Thesecond is the publication of David Miller’s NationalResponsibility and Global Justice (Miller ), IrisYoung’s Responsibility for Justice (Young ), andPeter French and Howard Weinstein’s edited collectionForward Looking Collective Responsibility(French andWeinstein ). So, too, is the“softer” notion of free will preferred bycompatibilitists.

· Collective responsibility is a concept that has to do with the level of responsibility carried by members or partners in some type of undertaking. On direct collective responsibility politics definition oxford elections to the European Assembly in 1977. Collective responsibility - Oxford Reference A convention applied in the operations of the UK cabinet that decisions on important issues of policy should not be taken by individual ministers in advance of cabinet meetings, and that decisions, once taken in cabinet, should be actively supported by all members of the government. in politics. When meeting with the Monarch, ministers would agree beforehand what to say, and then repeat the same advice when they saw the Monarch individually. Two things appear to explain such a shiftin focus. See full list on commonslibrary.

When isit appropriate to refrain from holding a group responsible? The only remedy for such a situation is some form of collective responsibility by which all officials who share authority are held equally responsible for acting or failing to act. Thetraditional, backward looking, notion does not sit well with those whoare skeptical about the ability of collective entities towill and to actas collective entities. Collective responsibility is a fundamental convention of the British constitution, whereby the Government is collectively accountable to Parliament for its actions, decisions and policies. responsibility to/towards somebody She feels a strong sense of responsibility towards her employees. Nor do they go as far asto assert that all kinds of groups can be understood as collectivelyresponsible for bringing about harm. Try our interactive A-level Politics course today, for free. Collective responsibility is the convention whereby individual members of the government are held accountable for the actions and decisions of government as a whole.

Much of this work, which presents a partialaccount of the armed conflict between Athens and Sparta that tookplace from. Collective responsibility in the form of collective punishment is often used as a disciplinary measure in closed institutions, e. It is not to be confused with collective cabinet responsibility, which states that cabinet members must approve publicly of its collective decisions or resign. ‘Brezhnev reintroduced collective responsibility within the Politburo, so as to share the responsibilities of, and to maximize general allegiance towards, the leadership.

This article considers the question of whether and to what degree citizens are responsible collectively for the actions of their state. On the issue of tariff policy in 1932. Indeed, afteranalyzing collective responsibility as part of group morality, theyfrequently place individual moral agents back at the center of theirattention in an effort to discer.

Most importantly, he asks whether relations among states towhich power is crucial can also be guided by the norms ofjustice. Other theorists have argued that with some modifications in the standard criteria of responsibility, the individualist approach (holding individuals responsible for collective outcomes) can be preserved (Bovens 1998; Thompson :11-32, 33-49). Collective responsibility implies that ministers are bound by the decisions of the cabinet, even when they had no part in their discussion or decision. What does it cover? In spite of its ambiguities and weaknesses, Morgenthau’sPolitics among Nations became a standard textbook andinfluenced thinking about international politics for a generation orso. · While the agential theory is dominant in IR, political theory, and philosophy, the functional theory prevails in International Law. The controversies surrounding forward looking collective responsibility have to do with both the role of agent causation in ascribing responsibility for remedying harm in the world and the norms and principles that may—or may not—be appropriate to invoke in this context.

This means that a motion for a vote of "no confidence" is not in order should the actions of an organ of government fail in the proper discharge of their. The idealists of the 1920s and 1930s(also called liberal internationalists or utopians) had the goal ofbuilding peace in order to prevent another world conflict. boarding collective responsibility politics definition oxford schools (punishing a whole class for the actions of one known or unknown pupil), military units, prisons (juvenile and adult), psychiatric facilities, etc. Is collective responsibility controversial? When is it appropriate to hold a group responsible for harm? Political socialization is the process by which people acquire their political attitudes, beliefs, opinions, and behaviors.

Therefore, if a minister cannot abide by a cabinet decision they must resign; eg, Robin Cook MP over the Iraq War. The idea that all ministers should provide a united front arose in the eighteenth century to protect ministers from the Monarch’s attempts to undermine their power by exposing or encouraging public arguments. This has made the theory ofinternational politics almost inaccessible to a layperson and hasdivided the discipline of international relations into incompatibleparts.

Not surprisingly, the kind of free will that is required of the modernnotion of moral responsibility —contra-causal freedom—isdifficult if not impossible to locate in practice. My next book-length project is on the political philosophy of immigration. · Hechter, echoing Gellner, defines nationalism as “a collective action designed to render the boundaries of the nation congruent with those of its governance unit” (p. On the referendum on the UK’s membership of the European Union. At the same time, there was an attempt to develop a more methodologically rigorous approach to theorizing about international affairs. This timely volume examines these major conventions and practices, including rules governing the activities of the Cabinet, the Prime Minister, and the Crown; the doctrines of collective and individual responsibilities of ministers and to Parliament; and. Instead, they assert that onlyparticular kinds of groups are capable of acting and intendingcollectively and that only particular kinds of groups are capable ofbeing collectively responsible for harm. What is the definition of political ethics?

On various issues under the –15 Coalition Government, including the referendum on the alternative voting system for general elections, as agreed in the Coalition Agreement. ’ noun 1 A person collective responsibility politics definition oxford with senior managerial responsibility in a business organization. · ‘Ideal and Nonideal Theory’ (with Adam Swift), David Estlund (ed), The Oxford Handbook of Political Philosophy, Oxford University Press,, 373-89 ‘Responsibility and Distributive Justice’ (with Carl Knight), Responsibility and Distributive Justice, Oxford University Press,, 1-23. When questioned about the convention in 1977, Prime Minister James Callaghan famously said “I certainly think that. The traditional, backward looking, notion does not sit well with those who are skeptical about the ability of collective entities to will and to act as collective entities. This interwar idealism. Oxford Collocations Dictionary uncountable, countable a moral duty to do something or to help or take care collective responsibility politics definition oxford of somebody because of your job, position, etc.

Collective Responsibility applies to all Ministers and is designed to ensure government unity - all ministers have to follow cabinet decisions. What is the definition of collective responsibility? Shared responsibilityis associated with individual moral agents who contribute to harm asmembers of a group either directly through their own actions orindirectly through their membership in the group.

Beginning in the mid-twentieth century, debates over the coherence and usefulness of the concept of collective responsibility for the Nazi Holocaust, slavery, and legalized racial discrimination in the United States, and apartheid in South Africa focused on three closely related issues. The effectiveness and severity of this measure. Excuses that might be valid in private life are less plausible in political. There is a difference between.

collective responsibility politics definition oxford But they do notleave individual moral agents behind altogether. A further related interest is in the idea of collective responsibility, and in particular the allocation of responsibility in situations where there are multiple agents each capable of remedying some harm. How, participants in this controversy haveasked, can we understand the notion of collective responsibility as amatter of mora. Forward lookingresponsibility, like its backward looking counterpart, refers to acollective agent’s responsibility for a particular state. Resignations are considered examples of individual ministerial responsibility, even if it was forced for political reasons. As a field of study, it is divided into two branches, each with distinctive problems and with different though overlapping literatures. Herder, Johann Gottfried. Macedo and his collaborators define “civic engagement” as “any activity, individual or collective, devoted to influencing the collective life of the polity” (Macedo et al.

At times, however, there may be an overlap between individual and collective responsibility. To some extent, then, collective responsibility politics definition oxford the issue of backward-looking responsibility is conceptualized in contradictory terms in the three plans: while individual responsibility is emphasized, that claim is immediately moderated—and. Three kinds of controversies surround the traditional notion ofcollective responsibility. Samantha is a Social Sciences Researcher at the Oxford Vaccine Group and the Oxford Martin School, working within the Programme on Collective Responsibility for Infectious Disease. Shared responsibiltyrefers to theresponsibility of group members for such harm in cases where theyacted together to bring the harm about. While French, Gilbert, May, and others who concentrate on redeemingcollective responsibility as an intellectual construct do so bydefending the coherence of collective actions and group intentions,they do not go as far as to assert that all kinds of groups arecapable of acting and intending collectively.

Moral Responsibility has traditionally been understood to entailmoral—and not just social or legal—blameworthiness andmoral blameworthiness has, during the modern period, been understoodto be an aspect of an individual’s own moral agency rather thana judgment that we ourselves make on the basis of our own social andlegal standards. In contrast to current accounts of collective responsibility, which focus on causality or affect as means for transmitting responsibility, the article develops an alternative account, the ‘authorized state’ model. There are also indications in Parliament of undertones of constitutional obligation. Individual Ministerial Responsibility is a constitutional convention oxford that makes Government Ministers responsible for not only their own actions, but also for those of collective responsibility politics definition oxford their department. Indeed, we often assume that we can answer it by simply reiteratingthe conditions of collective responsibility itself. Greenstein offers a comprehensive definition of the socialization process: “Political learning, formal and informal, deliberate and unplanned, at every stage of the life cycle, including not only explicit political learning, but also nominally non. individual responsibility.

Examples of agreements to differ include: 1. Collective responsibility is not, however, a feature of the Northern Ireland Executive. This book is a philosophical investigation of the complex moral landscape we find in collective situations such as these. This briefing paper focuses primarily on the doctrine of collective responsibility in relation to the United Kingdom’s Government. Corporate social responsibility; Group responsibility; Methodological individualism; Political responsibility; Social intentions; Social responsibility; Societal responsibility Definition The ascription to a group or organization of something to be done, of doing something, or of answering to something done (What a collective should do or what. An unintended and unfortunate consequence of the debate aboutneorealism is that neorealism and a large part of its critique (withthe notable exception of the English School) has been expressed in abstractscientific and philosophical terms. Contemporary moral and political philosophers are generally careful todistinguish between collective responsibility, on the one hand, andshared and individual responsibility, on the other.

Twentieth-century realism was born in response to the idealistperspective that dominated international relations scholarship in theaftermath of the First World War. Another Philosophy of History and Selected Political Writings. In Britain and other commonwealth countries, it is convention rather than law that determines many crucial questions of government behavior.

Both notions of collective responsibility are controversial. Collective responsibility refers to the responsibility of acollective entity, e. Decisions made by the Cabinet are binding on all members of the Government. What kinds of groups arethese?

Collective responsibility politics definition oxford

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